Article structure

Summary and abstract. A summary is required in two languages: a longer summary in English (6,000–9,000 characters with spaces) and a concise abstract in Estonian (1000 characters with spaces). The summary should provide a precise and exhaustive overview of the Estonian article. The abstract should include the objective of the study, the methods used, the most important results obtained and the conclusions based on the results. Both the abstract and summary should contain the title of the article in the relevant language.

Keywords. The list of a maximum of six keywords is presented immediately after the abstract  (summary). The list could be based on “General Keywords in Estonian” (For more detailed information see: The referred list contains education related keywords in Estonian with their corresponding equivalents in English.

Main text. The body of the empirical research article should include the following sections:

Introduction. This section should state the purpose of the study, the research problem and hypotheses (research questions) as well as provide a theoretical background and literature review on relevant studies. The most important aspects of the research should be emphasised and connections between the current and earlier research discussed.

Method. This section should describe what research methodology was used and how the research was conducted. An overview of the sample and research instrument(s) along with the strategies used to collect and analyse the data should be provided.

Results. The results should be based on reliable and valid data and presented clearly. All significant results should be given, including those which did not confirm the hypotheses.

Discussion/Conclusions. This section should interpret the results in the light of research questions and/ or hypotheses as well as to show how the results connect with or interrupt current understanding and knowledge of the issue under review. The validity of the conclusions as well as the strengths and limitations of the study are also to be identified. If applicable, potential for practical application of the results and recommendations for further research should be provided. In the case of qualitative research, combining the results and discussion into a single section may be advisable.

Appendices. The appendices should be listed in the order they are mentioned in the text and should be identified as A, B, etc.

Acknowledgements. All contributors who provided help during the research should be listed in this section. If the research has been supported by grants, a funding acknowledgement statement should be included.