Referencing Guide

Manuscripts should be written in grammatically correct Estonian and conform to the standards and style of scientific writing. The article in Estonian should include a longer summary in English (6,000–9,000 characters with spaces). To avoid spelling mistakes Microsoft Word’s spell check should be used.

All submissions should follow the American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines (Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition). For more information, please consult:  and

The following table provides a brief overview of the most common citations used.

In-text citations
All the authors whose ideas are mentioned in the article should be referred to. Only sources cited in the text should be included in the reference list.
In parentheses in the text In-text citations consist of the surname(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication in parentheses. Page numbers must be supplied for direct quotations. Two or more works by different authors within the same parentheses are ordered alphabetically and separated by semicolons.


(Anson & Schwegler, 2005)
(Anson & Schwegler, 2005, lk 24)
(Anson & Schwegler, 2005; Bergman & Wångby, 2014)
One or two authors If there is one or two authors, the surnames of both authors are listed. In the case of two authors the names are joined by ’and’; in the parentheses, by ampersand (&).

(Toomela, 2014)
(Anson & Schwegler, 2005)
Three to five authors If there are three to five authors, the surnames of all authors are listed the first time; in subsequent citations, only the name of the first author is used, followed by et al.

(Schepens, Aeltermann, & Van Keer, 2007)
Schepens jt (2007) või (Schepens et al., 2007)
More than five authors If there are more than five authors, only the surname of the first author is listed, followed by et al. All the authors should be included in the reference list.

Blom’i jt (2001)
(Blom et al., 2001)
Two or more works by the same author Two or more works by the same author are ordered by the year of publication. The dates are separated by commas.

(Biddle, 1986, 1998)
No author
When there is no author, the title is used in place of the author’s name. If the title is too long, only the first two to three words are used. In the reference list the full title is given.

(American Psychological Association, 2009)
Secondary referencing Secondary referencing should be avoided and used only when the primary source is not available. When citing such work, the author of the primary source and the author of the work it was cited in should be used.

(Lewin, Lippitt, & White, 1939, viidatud Baumrind, 1967 j).
Reference list
All publications cited in the manuscript must be included in the reference list.
Ordering the reference list All sources cited in the text are listed alphabetically by the author’s surname. All entries should include the following: the name(s) of the author(s), the year of publication, and the publisher. When there is no author, the work in the reference list is alphabetised by title.
Journal article Example
Margutti, P., & Drew, P. (2014). Positive  evaluation of student answers in classroom instruction. Language and Education, 28(5), 436–458.
Newspaper article Example
Heidmets, M. (2013, 6. dets). Uus ajakiri: kes kirjutab, kes loeb? Õpetajate Leht, lk 4.
The book has an author Example
Võgotski, L. (2014). Mõtlemine ja kõne. Tartu: Ilmamaa.
The book has an editor Example
Kikas, E. (Toim). (2010). Õppimine ja õpetamine esimeses ja teises kooliastmes. Tartu: Ecoprint.
No author or editor Example
Looduse entsüklopeedia (2013). Tallinn: Varrak.
Multiple works by the same author in the same year Examples
Lyons, J. (1981a). Language and Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lyons, J. (1981b). Language, Meaning and Context. London: Fontana.
Chapter from a book Example
Wischmeier, I. (2012). Primary School Teachers’ Beliefs about Bilingualism. J. König (Ed.), Teachers’ Pedagogical Beliefs (pp. 171–189). Münster: Waxmann Verlag.
Electronic documents 
When citing electronic documents the surname of the author, the title of the article  and the exact URL where it can be found should be included.
Online journal article Example
Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. Külastatud aadressil volume3/ pre0030001a.html
Document with the author and date Example
Hennoste, M. (2013). Eesti keele 3. klassi üleriigilise tasemetöö tulemused 2013. Külastatud aadressil
Document without the author and date Example
Koolivägivald (s.a.). Külastatud aadressil
Document from the website of an organisation Example
American Psychological Association (1996). How to cite information from the world wide web. Külastatud aadressil webref.html.
Tables and figures
Tables and figures supplement the text and do not duplicate the results described in it. All tables and figures should be numbered sequentially in the order to which they are referred in the text. Smaller tables and figures are placed in the text as near as possible to where they are first referred.  Longer tables and figures should be submitted as separate files or at the end of the manuscript. Tables are formatted according to APA guidelines. Only horizontal lines can be used to separate information and make it clearer. The tables and figures should be black and white.